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Year 2005: Volume II Issue II



Paper Title: Editorial. (PDF)

Author: Rajendra Akerkar

Area: Computer Science & Applications

Abstract: This issue contains nine papers from various areas of computer science, namely web mining, security, neural networks, internet, database etc. As a supplement to the editorial note, think-piece on scientific publishing in the Global Electronic Village is included in this issue. We take this opportunity to invite you to e-brainstorming on this matter. We will greatly value your comments, views and suggestions on creating such forum.



Paper Title: The Impact of Proxy Caches on Browser Latency. (PDF)

Author: Andrzej Siemiński

Area: Internet and Security

Abstract: Proxy caches had become popular in the mid 90’s. At that time the two main reasons for using proxies were: security of Internet access, the limitation of global network traffic and the speeding up network connections. The first two issues as important as they were before. The question is, however, whether proxies could still speed up the transfer rate for an individual user considering the fact, that in the last couple of years the average Internet transfer rate of an individual user has risen several times.  The paper considers different types of proxy actions and studies in what way they influence the browser display time. It discusses also acceptable loading times and the scope of cacheable objects. The paper introduces the CF Cacheability Factor which estimates the susceptibility to caching of individual WWW objects and whole Web sites as well. The CF could be used also to describe the browser cache – proxy cache cooperation.



Paper Title: Computational Efficiency of Optimized   Shortest Path Algorithms. (PDF)

  Author: P. Biswas, P. K. Mishra, and N. C. Mahanti 
  Area: Computer Science, Graph Theory
Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the computational efficiency of optimized shortest path algorithms. Our study establishes the relative order of the shortest path algorithms with respect to their known computational efficiencies is not significantly modified when the algorithms are adequately coded. An important contribution of this study is the inclusion of the re-distributive heap algorithm. In spite of having its best theoretical efficiency, the re-distributive heap algorithm does not emerge as the best method in terms of computational efficiency. The complexity of Dijkstra's algorithm depends heavily on the complexity of the priority queue Q. If this queue is implemented naively (i.e. it is re-ordered at every iteration to find the minimum node), the algorithm performs in O(n2), where n is the number of nodes in the graph.  With a real priority queue kept ordered at all times, as we implemented it, the complexity averages O(n log m). The logarithm function stems from the collections class, a red-black tree implementation which performs in O(log (m)). 


   Paper Title: Essential Spectrum of the Operators Generated by PDE Systems of Stratified Fluids 
   and  Lp-estimates for the Solutions. (

Author: A.Giniatoulline

Area: Numerical Mathematics

Abstract: We establish the localization and the structure of the spectrum of normal vibrations described by systems of partial differential equations modelling small displacements of stratified fluid in the homogeneous gravity field. We also compare the spectral properties of gravitational and rotational operators. The similarity of the essential spectrum for stratified and rotational flows corresponds to the analogy in the propagation of gravitational and Coriolis waves in viscous fluids, whose consideration includes the study of qualitative properties of the solutions, such as existence, uniqueness, smoothness, asymptotics, etc. We also obtain a solution of the Cauchy problem for a system of an exponentially stratified fluid in the gravity field  in the form of singular integrals, taken in the Cauchy principal value sense, when singularities are removed by a ball, that is, isotropically. If the initial data have a specified smoothness, the solution is written in the form of integrals with weak singularities of the kernels. Both these forms of solutions enable exact  estimates   to be obtained.



Paper Title: Iterative Discovering of User’s Preferences Using Web Mining. (PDF)

Author: Maciej Kiewra

Area: Web Mining

Abstract: A method of iterative preferences discovering is presented in this paper. It is based on the vector space model and a fuzzy classification of the on-line user’s session to precalculated clusters. As a result, the preference vector is created. It measures the user’s willingness to see web pages, products in an e-commerce site, masterpieces in a virtual gallery etc. Additionally, formal characteristics of the preference vector are discussed. It is shown, among others, why the fuzzy classification is better than a normal classification for preference vector construction.



Paper Title: Oblivious Search and Updates for Outsourced Tree-Structured Data on Untrusted Servers. (PDF)

Author: Dang Tran Khanh

Area: Database

Abstract: Although tree-based index structures, such as B+-trees, R-trees, have proven their advantages to both traditional and modern database applications, they introduce numerous research challenges as database services are outsourced to untrusted servers. In the outsourced database service (ODBS) model, the crucial security research questions mainly relate to data confidentiality, data and user privacy, authentication and data integrity. To the best of our knowledge, however, none of the previous research has radically addressed the problem of preserving privacy for basic operations on such outsourced search trees. Basic operations of search trees/tree-based index structures include search(to answer different types of queries) and updates (modification, insert, delete). In this paper, we will discuss security issues in outsourced databases that come together with search trees, and present techniques to ensure privacy in the execution of these trees’ basic operations on the untrusted server. Our techniques allow clients to operate on their outsourced tree-structured data on untrusted servers without revealing information about the query, result, and the outsourced data itself.



Paper Title: Relationship between Product Based Loyalty and Clustering based on Supermarket Visit and Spending Patterns. (PDF)

Authors: Chad West, Stephanie MacDonald, Pawan Lingras, and Greg Adams

Area: Data Mining

Abstract: Loyalty of customers to a supermarket can be measured in a variety of ways.  If a customer tends to buy from certain categories of products, it is likely that the customer is loyal to the supermarket. Another indication of loyalty is based on the tendency of customers to visit the supermarket over a number of weeks. Regular visitors and spenders are more likely to be loyal to the supermarket. Neither one of these two criteria can provide a complete picture of customers’ loyalty. The decision regarding the loyalty of a customer will have to take into account the visiting pattern as well as the categories of products purchased. This paper describes results of experiments that attempted to identify customer loyalty using these two sets of criteria separately. The experiments were based on transactional data obtained from a supermarket data collection program. Comparisons of results from these parallel sets of experiments were useful in fine tuning both the schemes of estimating the degree of loyalty of a customer. The project also provides useful insights for the development of more sophisticated measures for studying customer loyalty. It is hoped that the understanding of loyal customers will be helpful in identifying better marketing strategies.



Paper Title: Towards Mobile Z Schemas. (PDF)

Authors: M. Bettaz, and M. Maouche

Area: Mobile Computing, Wireless Networking,

Abstract: In this paper we show how to extend the Z language with location and mobile operation schemas. The objective is to seek appropriate models for tackling the space and coordination dimensions of mobility in a software engineering perspective. A case study from the literature is presented to illustrate the benefits of our mobility framework.



Paper Title: DNA Computing Approach to Semantic Model. (PDF)

Authors: Yusei Tsuboi, Zuwairie Ibrahim, and Osamu Ono

Area: DNA Computing

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new semantic model based on DNA computing. In the model the vertexes denote either a name of the target or both the attributes and attribute values. One path from an initial vertex to a terminal vertex means one object named on the tag. We name this model a semantic model based on DNA computing. The model explains a target object is reasoned out by the combinations between the vertexes. We describe its application to reasoning system by using DNA computing algorithm from theoretical point of a view. Vertexes and edges of the model are encoded to four kinds of nucleotides. The model is represented by double-stranded DNAs. Single-stranded DNAs are hybridized and ligated to let them the double-stranded DNAs, with the complementary sequences of input molecules and knowledge based ones. The generated DNAs are analyzed into necessary strands which are double-stranded DNAs representing the target objects. We discuss the proposed model and application with a simulation of computational complexity.



Paper Title: Preprocessing and Image Enhancement Algorithms for a Form-based Intelligent Character Recognition System. (PDF)

Authors: Dipti Deodhare, NNR Ranga Suri, and R. Amit

Area: Neural Networks

Abstract: A Form-based Intelligent Character Recognition (ICR) System for handwritten forms, besides others, includes functional components for form registration, character image extraction and character image classification. Needless to say, the classifier is a very important component of the ICR system. Automatic recognition and classification of handwritten character images is a complex task. Neural Networks based classifiers are now available. These are fairly accurate and demonstrate a significant degree of generalisation. However any such classifier is highly sensitive to the quality of the character images given as input. Therefore it is essential that the preprocessing components of the system, form registration and character image extraction, are well designed. In this paper we discuss the form image registration technique and the image masking and image improvement techniques implemented in our system as part of the character image extraction process. These simple yet effective techniques help in preparing the input character image for the neural networks-based classifiers and go a long way in improving overall system accuracy. Although these algorithms have been discussed with reference to our ICR.

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